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Solar wind
speed: 571.7 km/sec
density: 1.3 protons/cm3
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2347 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: B5
1737 UT Mar19
24-hr: C2
0131 UT Mar19
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 2300 UT
Daily Sun: 19 Mar 15
Departing sunspot AR2297 has a 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic field that harbors energy for X-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 44
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 19 Mar 2015

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2015 total: 0 days (0%)

2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)

Update 19 Mar 2015

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 115 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 19 Mar 2015

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 3 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 5
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 6.5 nT
Bz: 5.7 nT south
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at 2346 UT
Coronal Holes: 19 Mar 15

Solar wind flowing from the indicated coronal holes should reach Earth on March 19-20. Credit: SDO/AIA.
Noctilucent Clouds The southern season for NLCs has come to an end. The last clouds were observed by NASA's AIM spacecraft on Feb. 20, 2015. Now attention shifts to the northern hemisphere, where the first clouds of 2015 should appear in mid-May.
Switch view: Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Penninsula, East Antarctica, Polar
Updated at: 02-28-2015 02:55:03
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2015 Mar 19 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
20 %
10 %
01 %
01 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2015 Mar 19 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
30 %
20 %
05 %
05 %
01 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
15 %
15 %
30 %
30 %
35 %
25 %
Thursday, Mar. 19, 2015
What's up in space

Learn to photograph Northern Lights like a pro. Sign up for Peter Rosen's Aurora Photo Courses in Abisko National Park.

Lapland tours

TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE: For the first time in months, the sun is rising over the Arctic--just in time for the Moon to blot it out. On March 20th, the first day of northern spring, the new Moon will pass in front of the sun, producing a total solar eclipse. The narrow path of totality curves through the Arctic Ocean, cutting across Svalbard and the Faroe Islands, where people from around the world are converging to stand inside the Moon's cool shadow. While totality plays out in the Arctic Ocean, a partial eclipse cann be seen from most of Europe, Iceland, Greenland, and parts of Asia. For a quick preview, see the animated eclipse map from

GEOMAGNETIC STORM, CONTINUED: Earth's magnetic field is still reverberating from a CME strike on March 17th that sparked the strongest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle. At its peak on St. Patrick's Day--make that St. Patrick's Night--the G4-class storm pushed Northern Lights across the Canadian border into more than a dozen US states including New York, Washington, Iowa, Minnesota, Michigan, Oregon, Massachusetts and even Kansas. The auroras have since retreated north, but they are still glowing, as shown in this March 19th photo from Svalbard, site of tomorrow's total eclipse:

"Luckily the clouds parted here in Svalbard around 1 a.m.--just in time to see a nice Aurora strip in the sky!" says photographer Rayann Elzein. "Why just in time? Here at 78°N days are getting longer very fast this time of year, and dawn was already underway at 1 a.m. as you can see on the photo behind the mountains. Tonight the weather forecast is much better so lets hope for more auroras. And of course stay tuned for all the stories about tomorrows solar eclipse!"

Will sky watchers in Svalbard see a total eclipse and auroras at the same time?! NOAA forecasters estimate a 60% chance of polar geomagnetic storms on March 19th as Earth exits the CME's wake. Aurora alerts: text, voice

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery

Geomagnetic storms do more than just produce auroras. Amateur radio operators noticed strong disruptions to long-distance communications. David Hassall (WA5DJJ)  of Las Cruces, New Mexico, sends this report: "Shortly after the CME hit on March 17th, we experienced strong disruptions on the 30 meter (10 MHz) band. [Pictured below] is a screenshot of 200 mW transmissions on the path between Las Cruces, New Mexico and Northland, New Zealand as received by ZL2IK."

"The signal disruption happened on this radio path at 04:46 UTC (about 15 minutes after the CME arrived) and shifted the frequency of mine and other signals which were traversing that path. We are always studying the effects of solar events on our tiny signals and from this screenshot you see that they can be quite dynamic. Signals from England on this screenshot were affected differently than the ones from the USA."

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery

SPACE YEAST: On March 17th, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus flew a Space Weather Buoy into the geomagnetic storm to measure the effect of the CME's impact on cosmic rays in the stratosphere. Along with radiation detectors and other sensors, the payload carried some hitchhikers--brewer's and baker's yeast:

During their ascent to the stratosphere, the yeast experienced temperatures as low as -60 C, air pressures only 1% of sea level, and cosmic ray dose rates 40 times Earth-normal.

What can you do with Space Yeast? Bake space bread, brew space beer, or whip up any recipe that calls for yeast. Also, teachers and homeschoolers can conduct some cool classroom experiments.

If you would like a packet of space yeast, you can have one by making a donation of $49.95 to Earth to Sky Calculus. Every flown packet of baker's yeast comes with a control packet that remained behind on Earth during the flight, so you can conduct a properly-controlled scientific experiment. All proceeds support student space weather research. Contact Dr. Tony Phillips to place your order.

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery

  All Sky Fireball Network

Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Mar. 19, 2015, the network reported 2 fireballs.
(2 sporadics)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On March 19, 2015 there were 1560 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Miss Distance
2015 EO
Mar 15
2.8 LD
20 m
2015 FK
Mar 19
3.7 LD
36 m
2015 FF
Mar 20
4.2 LD
19 m
2015 EG7
Mar 20
2.7 LD
13 m
2015 FM
Mar 23
6.1 LD
26 m
2015 FC
Mar 26
2.9 LD
19 m
2015 FP
Mar 28
9.6 LD
37 m
2063 Bacchus
Apr 7
76 LD
1.6 km
5381 Sekhmet
May 17
62.8 LD
2.1 km
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.
  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
  the underlying science of space weather
Space Weather Alerts
  more links...
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