Solar wind
speed: 355.4 km/sec
density: 2.14 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 0702 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C6
1328 UT Jul12
24-hr: C6
1328 UT Jul12
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 1905 UT
Daily Sun: 12 Jul 24
Expand: labels | no labels | Carrington
Sunspots AR3738and AR3743 have 'beta-gamma' magnetic fields that harbor energy for M-class solar flares. . Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 188
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 12 Jul 2024

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2024 total: 0 days (0%)
2023 total: 0 days (0%)
2022 total: 1 day (<1%)
2021 total: 64 days (18%)
2020 total: 208 days (57%)
2019 total: 281 days (77%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 12 Jul 2024

Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 24.07x1010 W Warm
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 12 Jul 2024

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 205 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 11 Jul 2024

Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is intensifying, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu's Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining--a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

Oulu Neutron Counts

Percentages of the Space Age average:
today: -3.0% Low
48-hr change: -0.2%
Max: +11.7% Very High
Min: -32.1% Very Low (06/1991)
explanation | more data
Updated 12 Jul 2024 @ 0700 UT

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1.00 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 2.33
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 5.76 nT
Bz: 0.98 nT north
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 0702 UT
Coronal Holes: 12 Jul 24

Solar wind flowing from this small coronal hole could graze Earth on July 13-14, causing minor geomagnetic unrest. .
Credit: SDO/AIA

Polar Stratospheric Clouds
Colorful Type II polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) form when the temperature in the stratosphere drops to a staggeringly low -85C. NASA's MERRA-2 climate model predicts when the air up there is cold enough:

On July 11, 2024, the Arctic stratosphere is much too warm for Type II polar stratospheric clouds. | more data.

Noctilucent Clouds
They're back! The northern season for NLCs is underway. The first clouds were detected inside the Arctic Circle on May 25, 2024, by the NOAA 21 satellite. The clouds have since spread, and now observers are seeing from the ground as well:

noctilucent clouds
Updated: July 09, 2024

An instrument onboard NOAA 21 (OMPS LP) is able to detect NLCs (also known as "polar mesospheric clouds" or PMCs). In the daily map, above, each dot is a detected cloud. As the season progresses, these dots will multiply in number and shift in hue from blue to red as the brightness of the clouds intensifies.

NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2024 Jul 11 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
60 %
60 %
15 %
15 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2024 Jul 11 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
20 %
40 %
05 %
30 %
01 %
10 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
15 %
05 %
25 %
25 %
30 %
65 %
Friday, Jul. 12, 2024
What's up in space

This is an AI Free Zone! Text created by Large Language Models is spreading rapidly across the Internet. It's well-written, artificial, frequently inaccurate. If you find a mistake on, rest assured it was made by a real human being.


GEOMAGNETIC STORM WATCH (G1): NOAA forecasters say that minor G1-class geomagnetic storms are possible on July 13-14 when a stream of solar wind is expected to hit Earth's magnetic field. The gaseous material is flowing from a northern hole in the sun's atmosphere. Aurora alerts: SMS Text

SUPERSTORM TRIGGERED A MASS MIGRATION OF SATELLITES: Earth just experienced the biggest mass migration of satellites in history. On May 10, 2024, approximately 5000 spacecraft had to maneuver to maintain altitude, resisting a geomagnetic storm that was trying to pull them down. The event is described in a research paper just accepted by the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets.

Above: Black--number of maneuvering satellites; Blue--intensity of the storm

"Most were SpaceX Starlink satellites," says William Parker of MIT, the paper's lead author. "Each satellite has a GNSS receiver as well as autonomous station-keeping and collision-avoidance capabilities. When they sensed the effects of the storm, thousands of the satellites made the decision to maneuver."

The need to migrate upward was caused by a sudden increase in satellite drag. Earth's atmosphere absorbed a huge amount of energy from the solar storm, causing it to puff up like a marshmallow held over a campfire. Tendrils of heated air reached into space and started dragging the satellites down.

"The superstorm's peak power was 2.63 TeraWatts," says Martin Mlynczak, who retired from NASA's Langley Research Center a month after the storm. Before he left, he used infrared data from NASA's TIMED spacecraft to estimate the amount of thermal energy dumped into the upper atmosphere. "It deposited enough energy to run my house for 10 million years (I average about 510 kWh per month)," he says.

Earth's atmosphere has been heated this much before, most recently during the Halloween storms of 2003. In those days, however, the satellite population was relatively low (fewer than 1000) and there was no mass migration.

Above: Number of payloads launched to Earth orbit per year.

"The May 2024 geomagnetic storm was the first major storm to occur during a new paradigm in low Earth orbit satellite operations dominated by commercial small satellites," the authors wrote in their paper.

Thanks mainly to the advent of Starlink in 2019, Earth now has almost 10,000 active satellites--ten times the number in 2003. When a fraction of them unexpectedly decide to change course all at once, satellite operators must scramble to track them, making sure they don't collide. This creates a new and unprecedented risk for all satellites, even ones that don't move.

It's a problem that will only get worse in the years ahead. "Major storms are more likely throughout 2024-2025 during the peak of Solar Cycle 25," says Parker, "and the satellite population continues to grow."

Want to learn more? Read the original research here.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

GLOW-IN-THE-DARK AURORA PENDANT: Are you looking for a far-out gift? Consider the Glow-in-the-Dark Aurora Pendant. On July 8, 2024, it flew to the stratosphere onboard an Earth to Sky Calculus cosmic ray research balloon:

You can have it for $99.95. For 3 hours, the necklace floated 106,444 feet above the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California while radiation sensors inside the balloon's payload gathered data for the students' cosmic ray monitoring project. It comes with a greeting card showing the pendant in flight and explaining the Earth to Sky Calculus radiation experiment.

The students of Earth to Sky Calculus are selling space jewelry to support their cosmic ray ballooning program. Don't wait for Christmas--get yours now!

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM education

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

Realtime Noctilucent Cloud Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Jul 12, 2024, the network reported 11 fireballs.
(9 sporadics, 2 alpha Capricornids, 1 Northern June Aquilid)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On July 12, 2024 there were 2349 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2024 MT1
3.9 LD
2024 NB1
14.6 LD
2024 NR1
16.9 LD
2024 NA2
5.9 LD
2024 ME1
11.3 LD
2022 YS5
11 LD
2024 NG
9 LD
2024 NB2
10 LD
2024 BY15
16.2 LD
2024 NF
12.6 LD
2024 MG1
11.1 LD
2024 NH
13.1 LD
2024 LY2
12 LD
2011 MW1
10.1 LD
2024 NV1
14.1 LD
2024 MH1
4.7 LD
2011 AM24
16.8 LD
2024 NZ1
19.6 LD
14.9 LD
2024 NS1
5.3 LD
2020 PN1
18 LD
2023 HB7
14.6 LD
2017 TU1
10.1 LD
2024 KH3
14.6 LD
2021 GY1
17.7 LD
2024 JV33
12 LD
2022 BF2
19.7 LD
2020 RL
12.2 LD
2021 RA10
6.8 LD
2012 SX49
11.2 LD
2016 RJ20
18.3 LD
2021 JT
16.4 LD
2021 RB16
12.3 LD
2007 RX8
18.5 LD
2022 SR
9.1 LD
2023 SP2
15.3 LD
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Almost once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with sensors that detect secondary cosmic rays, a form of radiation from space that can penetrate all the way down to Earth's surface. Our monitoring program has been underway without interruption for 7 years, resulting in a unique dataset of in situ atmospheric measurements.

Latest results (July 2022): Atmospheric radiation is decreasing in 2022. Our latest measurements in July 2022 registered a 6-year low:

What's going on? Ironically, the radiation drop is caused by increasing solar activity. Solar Cycle 25 has roared to life faster than forecasters expected. The sun's strengthening and increasingly tangled magnetic field repels cosmic rays from deep space. In addition, solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays, causing sharp reductions called "Forbush Decreases." The two effects blend together to bring daily radiation levels down.

.Who cares? Cosmic rays are a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. They can alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. According to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health, crews of aircraft have higher rates of cancer than the general population. The researchers listed cosmic rays, irregular sleep habits, and chemical contaminants as leading risk factors. A number of controversial studies (#1, #2, #3, #4) go even further, linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

Technical notes: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Data points in the graph labeled "Stratospheric Radiation" correspond to the peak of the Regener-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Regener and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
  information about sunspots based on the latest NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary
Starlink Satellite Statistics
  current counts of failed and deployed Starlink satellites from Jonathan's Space Page. See also, all satellite statistics.
The Aerospace Corporation
  Authoritative predictions of space junk and satellite re-entries
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Live Aurora Webcam
  from Lights over Lapland
  the underlying science of space weather welcomes these supporters of science communication: RV Sales and Arizona Web Design & SEO and Ketamine Treatment & Therapy and Plan B Facility Services | Pest Control in PhoenixHVAC repair in South Jersey 

To get the best views of the cosmos, check out the Phoenix Window Glass Replacement experts for all your window and glass needs

Got a chipped or cracked windshield that prevents you from seeing space weather events while driving? Get windshield replacement from SR Windows & Glass with free mobile auto glass service anywhere in the Phoenix area.
NASA Near Earth Asteroid Home Page

Marketing yourself on YouTube is hard without real organic views on your videos. You can buy organic YouTube views from and enjoy social boosting that is actually real. Highly recommended!

BestCSGOGambling is the best site for everything related to CSGO gambling on the web

Find the best online casinos in India at 

Chicago SEO Expert
Search Kelowna Real Estate Listings & Homes for Sale easily.
Find help on all Calgary Homes For Sale and Real Estate Listings. Great source for Edmonton Real Estate Listings & Homes For Sale

Would you like to bet at sites not using GamStop? Look at a list of NonStopCasino sites for online betting that aren't on GamStop. Top-rated bookmakers ever!

  These links help stay online. Thank you to our supporters!
  more links...

today: m=10.2 (July 12.4)
yesterday: m=10.4

more: AAVSO data | sky map

Explanation: When the nova explodes, the visual magnitude of the star (m) will jump from +10 (invisible to the naked eye) to +2 (about as bright as the North Star).

Moon Phases

Get the best kitchen cabinets at affordable prices. Look no further than

Katso kaikki parhaat nettikasinot suomalaisille pelaajille

Check out for the best wholesale cabinets online

* Utländska casino utan svensk licens. Spela utan att förlora pengar!

Casinos without Swedish license:

สูตรบาคาร่า | gclub | สล็อต | slotxo | pgslot | super slot

Online Coupons Codes | Best Discount Codes

Web Design Essex

VIP Real Estate

US Zip Codes

Unit Converter


B2B Marketplace

space weather alerts

Bankruptcy Attorney San Diego

space weather alerts

best wireless webcam

space weather alerts

©2021 All rights reserved. This site is penned daily by Dr. Tony Phillips.

no verification casino USA

Learn how to use Excel

Best Promo Codes

Bountii Coupons

Insfollowpro is the top site to buy Instagram followers, likes, and views, solidifying its market leadership

PRO guide to UK and EU casinos not on gamstop at

At Casino Utan Svensk Licens, you will find the best gambling experience, with online casinos chosen for you!

Finding the best online casinos Australia can be challenging. helps Australians by providing a list of legit online casinos.

CasinoZonder | Nieuwe Casinos

Check out American casino online sites guide that offers the good welcome bonus

Compara y elige el mejor casino online España con las características que estás buscando

buy Instagram followers cheap at famousblast

Florida Car Accident Lawyer

EarthWeb Coupons

ผู้ให้บริการเว็บสล็อตออนไลน์ได้เงินจริง เชื่อถือได้ เป็นสล็อตเว็บตรงที่ดีที่สุด

Casino forum bonus

Casino Top 10

rahapelit netissä

Suomen uutiset

buy instagram likes - Professional transcription services online

xoilac tv

When seeking a generous bonus, look at this new online casino with the best incentives.

Safe & Secure Gambling: Casinon Utan Svensk Licens with MGA & Curacao Licenses

Write For Us Blog By Coupotoaster

Best online casino bonus deposit 2024

Wildz Casino offers the most complete list of casino games in the universe

Löydä parhaat kasinot kattavasta listauksesta ja vertaile.

Encuentra el mejor casino online de España en el comparador #1 del país.

* Encuentra tus casas de apuestas favoritas y consigue las mejores cuotas.

* Kokeile nettikasinoiden uutta kasinot ilman rekisteröitymistä trendiä Suomen parhaimmissa pelisivustoissa

Explore the best crypto casinos and sportsbooks

Find the best online casinos in the US for USA players by visiting

Sign up at King Johnnie online casino to play the best payout online casino games with the biggest rewards.

Play top-rated casino games via, it is one of the most popular hubs for exciting real money casino games.

Read latest casino reviews and casino games from an online casino Australia site, MyCasinoAdviser, one of Australia’s most trusted casino review sites.

For all the latest prop firms and forex related reviews, news and promos check out
Secrets to Trading 101
. Comprehensive guide to playing pokies and online casinos in Australia!

Pysy ajan tasalla suomalaisista uutisista sivustolla

Register with the best casinos ohne oasis today


Find the best crypto casinos online at!

Get the latest no deposit bonuses at

Find Swedish unlicensed casinos at today!

Find the best replica bags currently on the market from the most reputable online store.

See the latest list of casinos online in Chile and find your favourite

Find unlicensed Swedish betting sites at Betting Utan Svensk Licens today!

Online Casino Guide

Passagen’s Guide on Utländska Casino

Compare the best casinos online in Peru at

Discover the best Canadian casinos online and find your new favourite!

Find all emojis at:

cassinos online

Get your slot game winnings paid at light speed with fast payout casino banking options, which you can only find at regulated casinos

Compare the best uudet nettikasinot in Finland - and find your favorite new casino!

At NettCasino you can find the best selection of Norwegian online casinos

Find a Norwegian online casino to play at by visiting Norgesspill!.

Reviews for the latest slot games and Boku casino sites: 

Compare Crypto Bots and Trading Bots:

Find the best licensed casinos in Romania on

Online gambling in the USA is best experienced at OnlineGamblers

Compare Swedish casinos at CasinoUtanGränser which are all tax free.

Find the best Pay N Play Casinos for you in Sweden

Visit the Realm of Casino Bonuses in CasinoLandia for daily updates of current bonus offers

日本のオンラインカジノ.com ではライセンス付きで安全なオンライン カジノだけを紹介しています.

Find best Nederlandse online casino sites at

find an agent Togel the best and official here

udenlandske casinoer

nye danske casinoer.

Discover the best online casino belgie and reach for the stars

Casino Fast Payout: fast payout casinos worldwide

No registration casino sites and valuable casino content

Compare online casinos in Sweden at

Play Norges Automaten and other games at!

Play brand new casinos at

casino utan spelpaus

Find the latest bonuses and promotions at Limitless casino

Find the best casinos not on gamstop at

BuzzVoice is the best site to buy instagram likes from

xoilac tv

buy 1000 instagram followers from

Discover new Bitcoin casinos to play provably fair casino games. provides all the information to find the best Bitcoin casinos

Submit Travel Guest Post at LivingFeeds

Find information about casinos without Swedish license: Spelpressen

Zimpler casino

Casinos in Japan: Online Casino Osusume JP

No deposit bonuses at

El Paso social security disability lawyer | Casino bonus sans dépôt Canada