Solar wind
speed: 517.3 km/sec
density: 9.07 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1102 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C4
1859 UT Oct07
24-hr: M1
1445 UT Oct07
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 2305 UT
Daily Sun: 07 Oct 22
Expand: labels | no labels
Sunspot AR3112 has a delta-class magnetic field that poses a threat for X-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 139
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 07 Oct 2022

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2022 total: 1 day (<1%)
2021 total: 64 days (18%)
2020 total: 208 days (57%)
2019 total: 281 days (77%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 07 Oct 2022

Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 16.52
x1010 W Neutral
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 07 Oct 2022

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 156 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 07 Oct 2022

Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is beginning, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu's Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining--a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

Oulu Neutron Counts

Percentages of the Space Age average:
today: +4.4% Elevated
48-hr change: +1.9%
Max: +11.7% Very High
Min: -32.1% Very Low (06/1991)
explanation | more data
Updated 07 Oct 2022 @ 0700 UT

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 4
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 6.29 nT
Bz: 0.14 nT north
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1101 UT
Coronal Holes: 07 Oct 22

There are no large coronal holes on the Earthside of the sun.
Credit: SDO/AIA

Noctilucent Clouds
The summer season for northern noctilucent clouds has ended.
Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, Polar
Updated Oct07
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2022 Oct 07 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
55 %
55 %
15 %
15 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2022 Oct 07 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
30 %
25 %
10 %
05 %
01 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
20 %
25 %
25 %
20 %
20 %
15 %
Friday, Oct. 7, 2022
What's up in space

Never miss another geomagnetic storm. Sign up for Space Weather Alerts and you'll receive a text message when magnetic storms erupt. Aurora tour guides and professional astronomers use this service. You can, too!


LONG DURATION SOLAR FLARE (UPDATED): Sunspot AR3116 erupted today, Oct. 7th, producing a long-duration M1-class solar flare. The explosion lasted more than 3 hours, giving it plenty of time to lift a CME into space. However, SOHO coronagraphs have detected no significant CME emerging from the blast site.This event may not be geoeffective. Solar flare alerts: SMS Text

BLUEWALKER 3 UPDATE: AST SpaceMobile's controversial Bluewalker 3 satellite has been orbiting Earth and communicating with ground stations for nearly a month. It is stable, following the correct orbit, and taking great pictures of the planet below:

Now for the next step: Unfurling its enormous antenna. This could happen little more than a week from now.

Designed to supply 4G cell phone signals from space, Bluewalker 3's antenna is huge, 64 square meters or the size of a squash court. This flat surface orbiting 500 kilometers above Earth will reflect a lot of sunlight, which could make the satellite extremely visible to observers on the ground. Flares from Bluewalker 3 might even be brighter than Venus, outshining everything in the night sky except the Moon.

While this is only a single satellite for now, AST SpaceMobile plans to launch more than 100 larger satellites called BlueBirds. Doubling the size of BlueWalker 3, the Bluebirds would appear even brighter in the sky.

BlueWalker 3's 64-square-meter antenna will connect directly to standard mobile phones.

Hence the controversy. Astronomers worry that these satellites could interfere with deep sky observations by groundbased telescopes. Starlink satellites are already streaking images and ruining exposures. Bluewalker 3 and the Bluebirds could be 10 to 100 times brighter.

We will soon find out. Observers have been watching Bluewalker 3 since it launched on Sept. 10th. So far it is no brighter than a dim 3rd magnitude star, but its brightness could change dramatically when the antenna reaches full size. AST SpaceMobile says "we plan to unfold the array in the second half of October."

Stay tuned for sightings.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

RARE MR. SPOCK ORNAMENT: It's the logical way to decorate your Christmas tree--with a rare Mr. Spock ornament. This one has been to the edge of space. On Sept. 22, 2022, the students of Earth to Sky Calculus launched Spock to the stratosphere on board a cosmic ray research balloon:

You can have it for $129.95. The students are selling Spock ornaments to pay the helium bill for their cosmic ray ballooning program. Made by Hallmark in the 1990s, the ornament comes with a greeting card showing the science officer in flight and telling the story of its trip to the stratosphere and back again.

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM education

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Oct 07, 2022, the network reported 10 fireballs.
(9 sporadics, 1 southern Taurid)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On October 7, 2022 there were 2298 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2018 ER1
14.7 LD
2022 TY1
13.7 LD
2022 SL28
4.3 LD
2022 SC9
13.3 LD
2022 TG1
2.8 LD
2022 TF
6.9 LD
2022 SM21
4.9 LD
2022 SO11
2.9 LD
2018 VG
18.5 LD
2022 SJ28
14.9 LD
2022 TU1
1.2 LD
2022 TD
1 LD
2022 TB1
11.5 LD
2021 TJ10
19.6 LD
2022 TC1
12.4 LD
2022 TC2
7.1 LD
2013 TJ6
11.7 LD
2022 TV
6.3 LD
2022 TR
4 LD
2022 SU21
3.2 LD
2022 SB29
4.6 LD
2022 SV11
17.1 LD
2022 SE10
5.5 LD
2022 TS
2.3 LD
2022 RA5
13.1 LD
2022 TE1
2.1 LD
2022 SG6
15.7 LD
2013 SL20
6.3 LD
2022 TK1
10 LD
2022 SY10
6.4 LD
2022 SK48
17.7 LD
2020 TO2
1.4 LD
2020 BD
12.1 LD
2022 SK15
9.5 LD
2022 QM6
19.6 LD
2022 SF63
5.5 LD
2022 RB5
13.1 LD
2005 AZ28
11.5 LD
2022 TY
15 LD
2016 TH94
19.1 LD
2019 AN5
20 LD
2004 UT1
4 LD
2021 VH
5.9 LD
2022 RM4
6 LD
2020 WD
3 LD
2019 XS
16.7 LD
2019 VL5
8.5 LD
2018 WH
2.5 LD
2019 OR1
18.1 LD
2005 LW3
3 LD
2010 VQ
11.9 LD
2009 HV58
12.3 LD
2017 QL33
16 LD
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Almost once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with sensors that detect secondary cosmic rays, a form of radiation from space that can penetrate all the way down to Earth's surface. Our monitoring program has been underway without interruption for 7 years, resulting in a unique dataset of in situ atmospheric measurements.

Latest results (July 2022): Atmospheric radiation is decreasing in 2022. Our latest measurements in July 2022 registered a 6-year low:

What's going on? Ironically, the radiation drop is caused by increasing solar activity. Solar Cycle 25 has roared to life faster than forecasters expected. The sun's strengthening and increasingly tangled magnetic field repels cosmic rays from deep space. In addition, solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays, causing sharp reductions called "Forbush Decreases." The two effects blend together to bring daily radiation levels down.

.Who cares? Cosmic rays are a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. They can alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. According to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health, crews of aircraft have higher rates of cancer than the general population. The researchers listed cosmic rays, irregular sleep habits, and chemical contaminants as leading risk factors. A number of controversial studies (#1, #2, #3, #4) go even further, linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

Technical notes: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Data points in the graph labeled "Stratospheric Radiation" correspond to the peak of the Regener-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Regener and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
  information about sunspots based on the latest NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary
Starlink Satellite Statistics
  current counts of failed and deployed Starlink satellites from Jonathan's Space Page
The Aerospace Corporation
  Authoritative predictions of space junk and satellite re-entries
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Live Aurora Webcam
  from Lights over Lapland
  the underlying science of space weather

To get the best views of the cosmos, check out the Phoenix Window Glass Replacement experts for all your window and glass needs

To get an up close view of the heavenly bodies surrounding Earth, think about selling your junk car for cash and buying a high quality telescope. welcomes these supporters of science communication: RV Sales and Arizona SEO and Arizona Business Directory and C8 Corvette | Phoenix Personal Injury Lawyer | Phoenix SEO
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