Solar wind
speed: 294.3 km/sec
density: 1.67 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 0902 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: M3
0404 UT Jul22
24-hr: M3
0404 UT Jul22
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 0905 UT
Daily Sun: 22 Jul 24
Expand: labels | no labels | Carrington
Sunspot AR3762 is crackling with M-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 200
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 22 Jul 2024

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2024 total: 0 days (0%)
2023 total: 0 days (0%)
2022 total: 1 day (<1%)
2021 total: 64 days (18%)
2020 total: 208 days (57%)
2019 total: 281 days (77%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 22 Jul 2024

Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 23.17x1010 W Warm
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 21 Jul 2024

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 198 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 22 Jul 2024

Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is intensifying, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu's Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining--a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

Oulu Neutron Counts

Percentages of the Space Age average:
today: -2.2% Low
48-hr change: -0.4%
Max: +11.7% Very High
Min: -32.1% Very Low (06/1991)
explanation | more data
Updated 22 Jul 2024 @ 0700 UT

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1.33 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 2.00
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 6.30 nT
Bz: -5.58 nT south
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 0902 UT
Coronal Holes: 22 Jul 24

There are no significant coronal holes on the Earthside of the sun.
Credit: SDO/AIA

Polar Stratospheric Clouds
Colorful Type II polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) form when the temperature in the stratosphere drops to a staggeringly low -85C. NASA's MERRA-2 climate model predicts when the air up there is cold enough:

On July 20, 2024, the Arctic stratosphere is much too warm for Type II polar stratospheric clouds. | more data.

Noctilucent Clouds
They're back! The northern season for NLCs is underway. The first clouds were detected inside the Arctic Circle on May 25, 2024, by the NOAA 21 satellite. The clouds have since spread, and now observers are seeing from the ground as well:

noctilucent clouds
Updated: July 19, 2024

An instrument onboard NOAA 21 (OMPS LP) is able to detect NLCs (also known as "polar mesospheric clouds" or PMCs). In the daily map, above, each dot is a detected cloud. As the season progresses, these dots will multiply in number and shift in hue from blue to red as the brightness of the clouds intensifies.

NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2024 Jul 21 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
60 %
60 %
15 %
15 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2024 Jul 21 2200 UTC
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
20 %
10 %
05 %
01 %
01 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
15 %
15 %
25 %
20 %
25 %
15 %
Monday, Jul. 22, 2024
What's up in space

This is an AI Free Zone! Text created by Large Language Models is spreading rapidly across the Internet. It's well-written, artificial, frequently inaccurate. If you find a mistake on, rest assured it was made by a real human being.


A NEW SOURCE OF FLARES: New sunspot AR3762 is suddenly crackling with flares. Multiple eruptions yesterday and today quickly ascended in intensity from category C6 to M4, a trend that could produce high-M or even X-class flares on July 22nd if the explosions continue apace. Solar flare alerts: SMS Text

DOUBLE DARK PLASMA ERUPTION: Two dark plumes of plasma flew into space on July 21st when a magnetic filament connected to sunspot AR3757 erupted. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory recorded their exit:

The plasma is dark because it is cooler and denser than the hot sun underneath. As the dense plumes traveled outward through the sun's atmosphere, they entrained even more plasma, forming the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME).

Shortly after the blast, SOHO coronagraphs recorded a halo CME leaving the sun. A preliminary NASA model of the CME predicts it will hit Earth during the late hours of July 24th. The CME's arrival could spark a G1-class geomagnetic storm. Solar flare alerts: SMS Text

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

REAL MONEY FROM SPACE: On July 16, 1969, the world watched as a Saturn V rocket launched Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins to the Moon. Exactly 55 years later, the students of Earth to Sky Calculus launched the US Mint's limited edition Saturn V dollar coin to the stratosphere:

You can have a single coin for $49.95 or an entire unbroken roll for $249.95. No longer available from the US Mint, these rare coins flew 121,665 feet above the Sierra Nevada on July 16, 2024. One side shows the mighty Saturn V rocket blasting off from Cape Canaveral; the other side features the Statue of Liberty in profile.

The students are selling space coins to support to support their cosmic ray research program. (Helium is expensive!) Each order comes with a greeting card showing the coins in flight and telling the story of their journey to the stratosphere and back again.

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM education

Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

Realtime Comet Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

Realtime Noctilucent Cloud Photo Gallery
Free: Newsletter

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on

On Jul 21, 2024, the network reported 21 fireballs.
(20 sporadics, 1 alpha Capricornid)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On July 22, 2024 there were 2349 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2024 BY15
16.2 LD
2024 NJ3
3.2 LD
2024 NF
12.6 LD
2024 NM3
2 LD
2024 MG1
11.1 LD
2024 NH
13.1 LD
2024 LY2
12 LD
2011 MW1
10.1 LD
2024 NV1
14.1 LD
2024 MH1
4.7 LD
2011 AM24
16.8 LD
2024 NZ1
19.5 LD
14.9 LD
2024 NS1
5.3 LD
2020 PN1
18 LD
2023 HB7
14.7 LD
2017 TU1
10.1 LD
2024 KH3
14.6 LD
2021 GY1
17.7 LD
2024 JV33
12 LD
2022 BF2
19.7 LD
2020 RL
12.2 LD
2021 RA10
6.8 LD
2012 SX49
11.2 LD
2016 RJ20
18.3 LD
2021 JT
16.4 LD
2021 RB16
12.3 LD
2007 RX8
18.5 LD
2022 SR
9.1 LD
2023 SP2
15.3 LD
2016 TU19
13.2 LD
2019 DJ1
10.4 LD
2013 FW13
8.5 LD
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Almost once a week, and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with sensors that detect secondary cosmic rays, a form of radiation from space that can penetrate all the way down to Earth's surface. Our monitoring program has been underway without interruption for 7 years, resulting in a unique dataset of in situ atmospheric measurements.

Latest results (July 2022): Atmospheric radiation is decreasing in 2022. Our latest measurements in July 2022 registered a 6-year low:

What's going on? Ironically, the radiation drop is caused by increasing solar activity. Solar Cycle 25 has roared to life faster than forecasters expected. The sun's strengthening and increasingly tangled magnetic field repels cosmic rays from deep space. In addition, solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays, causing sharp reductions called "Forbush Decreases." The two effects blend together to bring daily radiation levels down.

.Who cares? Cosmic rays are a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. They can alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. According to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health, crews of aircraft have higher rates of cancer than the general population. The researchers listed cosmic rays, irregular sleep habits, and chemical contaminants as leading risk factors. A number of controversial studies (#1, #2, #3, #4) go even further, linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

Technical notes: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Data points in the graph labeled "Stratospheric Radiation" correspond to the peak of the Regener-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Regener and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
  information about sunspots based on the latest NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary
Starlink Satellite Statistics
  current counts of failed and deployed Starlink satellites from Jonathan's Space Page. See also, all satellite statistics.
The Aerospace Corporation
  Authoritative predictions of space junk and satellite re-entries
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Live Aurora Webcam
  from Lights over Lapland
  the underlying science of space weather welcomes these supporters of science communication: RV Sales and Arizona Web Design & SEO and Ketamine Treatment & Therapy and Plan B Facility Services | Pest Control in PhoenixHVAC repair in South Jersey 

To get the best views of the cosmos, check out the Phoenix Window Glass Replacement experts for all your window and glass needs

Got a chipped or cracked windshield that prevents you from seeing space weather events while driving? Get windshield replacement from SR Windows & Glass with free mobile auto glass service anywhere in the Phoenix area.
NASA Near Earth Asteroid Home Page

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today: m=10.1 (July 22.1)
yesterday: m=10.1

more: AAVSO data | sky map

Explanation: When the nova explodes, the visual magnitude of the star (m) will jump from +10 (invisible to the naked eye) to +2 (about as bright as the North Star).

Moon Phases

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