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SpaceWeather.com -- News and information about meteor showers, solar flares, auroras, and near-Earth asteroids
 
Solar wind
speed: 494.1 km/sec
density: 6.46 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1147 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: B6
2234 UT Jun25
24-hr: C1
1402 UT Jun25
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 2350 UT
Daily Sun: 25 Jun 22
Expand: labels | no labels
The magnetic field of sunspot AR3038 has decayed. It no longer poses a threat for strong solar flares. Credit: Howard Eskildsen of Ocala, Florida

Sunspot number: 60
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 25 Jun 2022

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2022 total: 1 day (<1%)
2021 total: 64 days (18%)
2020 total: 208 days (57%)
2019 total: 281 days (77%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 25 Jun 2022


Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 13.84
x1010 W Neutral
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 25 Jun 2022

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 115 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 25 Jun 2022

Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is beginning, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu's Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining--a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

Oulu Neutron Counts

Percentages of the Space Age average:
today: +3.8% Elevated
48-hr change: +0.1%
Max: +11.7% Very High
(12/2009)
Min: -32.1% Very Low (06/1991)
explanation | more data
Updated 25 Jun 2022 @ 1700 UT

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 4 unsettled
24-hr max: Kp= 4
unsettled
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 11.93 nT
Bz: 1.17 nT north
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1146 UT
Coronal Holes: 25 Jun 22

There are no significant coronal holes on the Earthside of the sun.
Credit: GOES-16

Noctilucent Clouds
Noctilucent cloud season is underway. The clouds are currently spreading as far south as +47N.
Switch view: Europe, USA, Asia, Polar
Updated Jun25
SPACE WEATHER
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2022 Jun 25 2200 UTC
FLARE
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
CLASS M
10 %
10 %
CLASS X
01 %
01 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2022 Jun 25 2200 UTC
Mid-latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
45 %
30 %
MINOR
25 %
10 %
SEVERE
05 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
10 %
15 %
MINOR
25 %
25 %
SEVERE
65 %
40 %
 
Saturday, Jun. 25, 2022
What's up in space
       
 

Never miss another geomagnetic storm. Sign up for Space Weather Alerts and you'll receive a text message when magnetic storms erupt. Aurora your guides and professional astronomers use this service. You can, too!

 

GEOMAGNETIC STORM IN PROGRESS: A minor G1-class geomagnetic storm is in progress on June 25th. High-latitude sky watchers should be alert for auroras after nightfall. Aurora alerts: SMS Text.

MORNING PLANET SHOW: Set your alarm for dawn. The brightest planets in the solar system have lined up in order of their distance from the sun. They appear in the eastern sky just before the rising sun. On June 26th the crescent Moon will glide by Venus, adding a beautiful conjunction to the display. Sky maps: June 25, 26.


Above: Planets over Valencia, the Philippines, on June 25, 2022. Credit: Dr. Ski

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter

"I LOVE YOU FOREVER" MOONSTONE PENDANT: Are you looking for a far-out gift? Consider the "I Love You Forever" Moonstone. This one hitched a ride to the stratosphere onboard a cosmic ray research balloon on May 13, 2022:

You can have it for $162.95. The moonstone's sterling silver infinity wrap is inscribed with the words "I love you forever." It makes a great anniversary or birthday gift. The moonstone comes with a greeting card showing the pendant in flight, telling the story of its trip to the edge of space and back again.

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM education


Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter


Realtime Noctilucent Cloud Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.

On June 24, 2022, the network reported 10 fireballs.
(10 sporadics)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On June 25, 2022 there were 2279 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Asteroid
Date(UT)
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2022 MM
2022-Jun-21
1.2 LD
21.3
29
2022 LX
2022-Jun-22
10.4 LD
10.1
35
2022 MO1
2022-Jun-22
9.2 LD
9.9
31
2022 LS1
2022-Jun-23
18.9 LD
9.9
35
2022 MP1
2022-Jun-23
10.2 LD
8.8
30
2022 MR
2022-Jun-24
13.3 LD
9.4
44
2022 LB2
2022-Jun-25
5 LD
8.3
22
2022 LV
2022-Jun-25
2 LD
3.6
22
2015 WP2
2022-Jun-26
18.5 LD
11.4
3
2022 MD
2022-Jun-26
14 LD
8.3
53
2022 MQ
2022-Jun-27
7.5 LD
12.1
98
2022 MP
2022-Jun-27
6.6 LD
7.7
58
2022 ML
2022-Jun-27
12.9 LD
9.1
31
2022 MJ
2022-Jun-27
14 LD
12.2
51
2022 MN1
2022-Jun-28
0.9 LD
9.9
13
2022 MS
2022-Jul-01
8.3 LD
6
29
2022 MF
2022-Jul-02
14.8 LD
12.1
37
2022 MB1
2022-Jul-02
19.1 LD
6.3
17
2022 JE1
2022-Jul-03
8.6 LD
5.6
74
2022 MY
2022-Jul-05
13 LD
7.2
25
2021 EL4
2022-Jul-05
19.8 LD
9.5
25
2015 OQ21
2022-Jul-12
18.3 LD
6.6
9
2022 LR1
2022-Jul-16
9.3 LD
4.7
42
2022 KY4
2022-Jul-17
15.9 LD
7.6
91
2021 OT
2022-Jul-17
16.5 LD
11.2
20
349068
2022-Jul-19
17.6 LD
22.9
756
2017 RX2
2022-Jul-24
17.2 LD
14.2
17
2016 CZ31
2022-Jul-29
7 LD
15.6
129
531944
2022-Jul-30
18.2 LD
5.9
192
2020 PP1
2022-Aug-01
13.1 LD
3.7
17
2020 PN1
2022-Aug-03
9.7 LD
4.6
29
2015 FF
2022-Aug-12
11.2 LD
9.2
17
2019 AV13
2022-Aug-22
19.1 LD
8.8
135
2020 QW3
2022-Aug-22
14.1 LD
18.1
30
2015 QH3
2022-Aug-22
5.6 LD
7
14
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU. MAG is the visual magnitude of the asteroid on the date of closest approach.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Almost once a week, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with sensors that detect secondary cosmic rays, a form of radiation from space that can penetrate all the way down to Earth's surface. Our monitoring program has been underway without interruption for 7 years, resulting in a unique dataset of in situ atmospheric measurements.

Latest results (Nov. 2021): Our balloons have just measured a sudden drop in atmospheric radiation. It happened during the strong geomagnetic storms of Nov. 3-4, 2021. Here are the data:

This is called a "Forbush decrease," named after American physicist Scott Forbush who studied cosmic rays in the early 20th century.  It happens when a CME from the sun sweeps past Earth and literally pushes cosmic rays away from our planet. Radiation from deep space that would normally pepper Earth's upper atmosphere is briefly wiped out.

We have measured Forbush decreases before. For example, here's one from Sept. 2014. The Forbush Decrease of Nov. 3-4, 2021, was the deepest in the history of our 7-year atmospheric monitoring program. Radiation levels in the stratosphere over California dropped nearly 20%, more than doubling the previous record from our dataset. 

En route to the stratosphere, our sensors also pass through aviation altitudes, so we can sample radiation where planes fly. This plot shows how the Forbush decrease was restricted to the stratosphere; it did not affect lower levels of the atmosphere:

The dose rates shown above are expressed as multiples of sea level. For instance, we see that boarding a plane that flies at 25,000 feet exposes passengers to dose rates ~10x higher than sea level. At 40,000 feet, the multiplier is closer to 50x. The higher you fly, the more radiation you will absorb.

.Who cares? Cosmic rays are a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. They can seed clouds, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. According to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health, crews of aircraft have higher rates of cancer than the general population. The researchers listed cosmic rays, irregular sleep habits, and chemical contaminants as leading risk factors. Somewhat more controversial studies (#1, #2, #3, #4) link cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

.Technical notes: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Data points in the first graph ("Stratospheric Radiation") correspond to the peak of the Regener-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Regener and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
STEREO
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
SolarMonitor.org
  information about sunspots based on the latest NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Live Aurora Webcam
  from Lights over Lapland
Heliophysics
  the underlying science of space weather

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