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SpaceWeather.com -- News and information about meteor showers, solar flares, auroras, and near-Earth asteroids
 
Solar wind
speed: 354.1 km/sec
density: 2.91 protons/cm3
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1147 UT
X-ray Solar Flares
6-hr max: C9
2137 UT Jul15
24-hr: M2
0937 UT Jul15
explanation | more data
Updated: Today at: 2350 UT
Daily Sun: 15 Jul 24
Expand: labels | no labels | Carrington
Sunspot AR3738 has a 'beta-gamma-delta' magnetic field that harbors energy for X-class solar flares. Credit: SDO/HMI

Sunspot number: 217
What is the sunspot number?
Updated 15 Jul 2024

Spotless Days
Current Stretch: 0 days
2024 total: 0 days (0%)
2023 total: 0 days (0%)
2022 total: 1 day (<1%)
2021 total: 64 days (18%)
2020 total: 208 days (57%)
2019 total: 281 days (77%)
2018 total: 221 days (61%)
2017 total: 104 days (28%)
2016 total: 32 days (9%)
2015 total: 0 days (0%)
2014 total: 1 day (<1%)
2013 total: 0 days (0%)
2012 total: 0 days (0%)
2011 total: 2 days (<1%)
2010 total: 51 days (14%)
2009 total: 260 days (71%)
2008 total: 268 days (73%)
2007 total: 152 days (42%)
2006 total: 70 days (19%)

Updated 15 Jul 2024


Thermosphere Climate Index
today: 23.74x1010 W Warm
Max: 49.4
x1010 W Hot (10/1957)
Min: 2.05
x1010 W Cold (02/2009)
explanation | more data: gfx, txt
Updated 15 Jul 2024

The Radio Sun
10.7 cm flux: 234 sfu
explanation | more data
Updated 15 Jul 2024

Cosmic Rays Solar Cycle 25 is intensifying, and this is reflected in the number of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. Neutron counts from the University of Oulu's Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory show that cosmic rays reaching Earth are slowly declining--a result of the yin-yang relationship between the solar cycle and cosmic rays.

Oulu Neutron Counts

Percentages of the Space Age average:
today: -2.7% Low
48-hr change: -0.3%
Max: +11.7% Very High
(12/2009)
Min: -32.1% Very Low (06/1991)
explanation | more data
Updated 15 Jul 2024 @ 0700 UT

Current Auroral Oval:
Switch to: Europe, USA, New Zealand, Antarctica
Credit: NOAA/Ovation
Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 1.67 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 1.67
quiet
explanation | more data
Interplanetary Mag. Field
Btotal: 12.57 nT
Bz: -7.71 nT south
more data: ACE, DSCOVR
Updated: Today at 1147 UT
Coronal Holes: 15 Jul 24

Solar wind flowing from this northern coronal hole might graze Earth on July 19th.
Credit: SDO/AIA

Polar Stratospheric Clouds
Colorful Type II polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) form when the temperature in the stratosphere drops to a staggeringly low -85C. NASA's MERRA-2 climate model predicts when the air up there is cold enough:

On July 15, 2024, the Arctic stratosphere is much too warm for Type II polar stratospheric clouds. | more data.

Noctilucent Clouds
They're back! The northern season for NLCs is underway. The first clouds were detected inside the Arctic Circle on May 25, 2024, by the NOAA 21 satellite. The clouds have since spread, and now observers are seeing from the ground as well:

noctilucent clouds
Updated: July 14, 2024

An instrument onboard NOAA 21 (OMPS LP) is able to detect NLCs (also known as "polar mesospheric clouds" or PMCs). In the daily map, above, each dot is a detected cloud. As the season progresses, these dots will multiply in number and shift in hue from blue to red as the brightness of the clouds intensifies.

SPACE WEATHER
NOAA Forecasts
Updated at: 2024 Jul 15 2200 UTC
FLARE
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
CLASS M
65 %
65 %
CLASS X
15 %
15 %
Geomagnetic Storms:
Probabilities for significant disturbances in Earth's magnetic field are given for three activity levels: active, minor storm, severe storm
Updated at: 2024 Jul 15 2200 UTC
Mid-latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
10 %
10 %
MINOR
01 %
01 %
SEVERE
01 %
01 %
High latitudes
0-24 hr
24-48 hr
ACTIVE
15 %
15 %
MINOR
20 %
20 %
SEVERE
15 %
15 %
 
Monday, Jul. 15, 2024
What's up in space
       
 

This is an AI Free Zone! Text created by Large Language Models is spreading rapidly across the Internet. It's well-written, artificial, frequently inaccurate. If you find a mistake on Spaceweather.com, rest assured it was made by a real human being.

 

20 STARLINK SATELLITES WERE LOST: Jonathan McDowell of Harvard University reports that all 20 Starlink satellites launched on July 11th have re-entered Earth's atmosphere. A failure in SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket caused the satellites to be deployed lower than usual, too low to escape the drag of the atmosphere below. Right now, our atmosphere is extra-puffed up by high solar activity, so the satellites were doomed despite "warp 9" thuster firings. If you witnessed any of the re-entries, please submit your images here.

VENUS IN FULL: Like the Moon, Venus has phases. There is one phase, however, that astronomers rarely see: Full. The 100% disk of Venus can be devilishly difficult to observe because it only appears when Venus is behind the sun. On July 13th, Patricio Leon photographed the full disk in a blue winter sky over Santiago, Chile:

"I located the planet by optical means when it was close to transiting the meridian at noon," says Leon. "In round numbers it presents a 100% phase, measures 10 arcseconds in diameter, and lies 10° east of the sun."

This won't last long. Venus is emerging from the glare of the sun to renew its position as the Evening Star. As the second half of 2024 unfolds, it will shape-shift into a gibbous, half, then crescent easily seen in the twilight sky. If you decide to catch the rare Full Venus, do so now, but be careful! The blinding sun is only 10° away.

Realtime Space Weather Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter

GLOW-IN-THE-DARK AURORA PENDANT: Are you looking for a far-out gift? Consider the Glow-in-the-Dark Aurora Pendant. On July 8, 2024, it flew to the stratosphere onboard an Earth to Sky Calculus cosmic ray research balloon:

You can have it for $99.95. For 3 hours, the necklace floated 106,444 feet above the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California while radiation sensors inside the balloon's payload gathered data for the students' cosmic ray monitoring project. It comes with a greeting card showing the pendant in flight and explaining the Earth to Sky Calculus radiation experiment.

The students of Earth to Sky Calculus are selling space jewelry to support their cosmic ray ballooning program. Don't wait for Christmas--get yours now!

Far Out Gifts: Earth to Sky Store
All sales support hands-on STEM education


Realtime Comet Photo Gallery
Free:
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Realtime Aurora Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter


Realtime Noctilucent Cloud Photo Gallery
Free:
Spaceweather.com Newsletter

  All Sky Fireball Network
Every night, a network of NASA all-sky cameras scans the skies above the United States for meteoritic fireballs. Automated software maintained by NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office calculates their orbits, velocity, penetration depth in Earth's atmosphere and many other characteristics. Daily results are presented here on Spaceweather.com.

On Jul 15, 2024, the network reported 8 fireballs.
(8 sporadics)

In this diagram of the inner solar system, all of the fireball orbits intersect at a single point--Earth. The orbits are color-coded by velocity, from slow (red) to fast (blue). [Larger image] [movies]

  Near Earth Asteroids
Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are space rocks larger than approximately 100m that can come closer to Earth than 0.05 AU. None of the known PHAs is on a collision course with our planet, although astronomers are finding new ones all the time.
On July 15, 2024 there were 2349 potentially hazardous asteroids.
Recent & Upcoming Earth-asteroid encounters:
Asteroid
Date(UT)
Miss Distance
Velocity (km/s)
Diameter (m)
2024 ME1
2024-Jul-10
11.3 LD
8.4
40
2024 NK3
2024-Jul-11
0.3 LD
10.6
6
2022 YS5
2024-Jul-11
11 LD
5.8
38
2024 NG
2024-Jul-13
9 LD
7
18
2024 NB2
2024-Jul-13
10 LD
13.3
33
2024 BY15
2024-Jul-16
16.2 LD
0.7
16
2024 NJ3
2024-Jul-17
3.2 LD
6.4
15
2024 NF
2024-Jul-17
12.6 LD
20.3
69
2024 MG1
2024-Jul-21
11.1 LD
9.3
58
2024 NH
2024-Jul-23
13.1 LD
5.5
29
2024 LY2
2024-Jul-23
12 LD
7.8
93
2011 MW1
2024-Jul-25
10.1 LD
8
120
2024 NV1
2024-Jul-25
14.1 LD
10.2
31
2024 MH1
2024-Jul-26
4.7 LD
5.8
27
2011 AM24
2024-Jul-26
16.8 LD
6.2
281
2024 NZ1
2024-Jul-28
19.5 LD
12.8
56
523664
2024-Jul-28
14.9 LD
23.7
680
2024 NS1
2024-Aug-02
5.3 LD
7.6
52
2020 PN1
2024-Aug-02
18 LD
5.5
29
2023 HB7
2024-Aug-05
14.6 LD
6.1
32
2017 TU1
2024-Aug-05
10.1 LD
10.1
22
2024 KH3
2024-Aug-10
14.6 LD
11.4
197
2021 GY1
2024-Aug-16
17.7 LD
6.3
59
2024 JV33
2024-Aug-19
12 LD
11.1
207
2022 BF2
2024-Aug-19
19.7 LD
16.4
91
2020 RL
2024-Aug-27
12.2 LD
8.2
34
2021 RA10
2024-Aug-28
6.8 LD
4.9
29
2012 SX49
2024-Aug-29
11.2 LD
4.3
20
2016 RJ20
2024-Aug-30
18.3 LD
14.8
68
2021 JT
2024-Sep-01
16.4 LD
8.2
12
2021 RB16
2024-Sep-02
12.3 LD
8.4
15
2007 RX8
2024-Sep-02
18.5 LD
7
44
2022 SR
2024-Sep-07
9.1 LD
6.3
42
2023 SP2
2024-Sep-09
15.3 LD
4.2
8
2016 TU19
2024-Sep-11
13.2 LD
10.1
47
Notes: LD means "Lunar Distance." 1 LD = 384,401 km, the distance between Earth and the Moon. 1 LD also equals 0.00256 AU.
  Cosmic Rays in the Atmosphere

SPACE WEATHER BALLOON DATA: Almost once a week, Spaceweather.com and the students of Earth to Sky Calculus fly space weather balloons to the stratosphere over California. These balloons are equipped with sensors that detect secondary cosmic rays, a form of radiation from space that can penetrate all the way down to Earth's surface. Our monitoring program has been underway without interruption for 7 years, resulting in a unique dataset of in situ atmospheric measurements.

Latest results (July 2022): Atmospheric radiation is decreasing in 2022. Our latest measurements in July 2022 registered a 6-year low:

What's going on? Ironically, the radiation drop is caused by increasing solar activity. Solar Cycle 25 has roared to life faster than forecasters expected. The sun's strengthening and increasingly tangled magnetic field repels cosmic rays from deep space. In addition, solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) sweep aside cosmic rays, causing sharp reductions called "Forbush Decreases." The two effects blend together to bring daily radiation levels down.

.Who cares? Cosmic rays are a surprisingly "down to Earth" form of space weather. They can alter the chemistry of the atmosphere, trigger lightning, and penetrate commercial airplanes. According to a study from the Harvard T.H. Chan school of public health, crews of aircraft have higher rates of cancer than the general population. The researchers listed cosmic rays, irregular sleep habits, and chemical contaminants as leading risk factors. A number of controversial studies (#1, #2, #3, #4) go even further, linking cosmic rays with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

Technical notes: The radiation sensors onboard our helium balloons detect X-rays and gamma-rays in the energy range 10 keV to 20 MeV. These energies span the range of medical X-ray machines and airport security scanners.

Data points in the graph labeled "Stratospheric Radiation" correspond to the peak of the Regener-Pfotzer maximum, which lies about 67,000 feet above central California. When cosmic rays crash into Earth's atmosphere, they produce a spray of secondary particles that is most intense at the entrance to the stratosphere. Physicists Eric Regener and Georg Pfotzer discovered the maximum using balloons in the 1930s and it is what we are measuring today.

  Essential web links
NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center
  The official U.S. government space weather bureau
Atmospheric Optics
  The first place to look for information about sundogs, pillars, rainbows and related phenomena.
Solar Dynamics Observatory
  Researchers call it a "Hubble for the sun." SDO is the most advanced solar observatory ever.
STEREO
  3D views of the sun from NASA's Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
  Realtime and archival images of the Sun from SOHO.
SolarMonitor.org
  information about sunspots based on the latest NOAA/USAF Active Region Summary
Starlink Satellite Statistics
  current counts of failed and deployed Starlink satellites from Jonathan's Space Page. See also, all satellite statistics.
The Aerospace Corporation
  Authoritative predictions of space junk and satellite re-entries
Daily Sunspot Summaries
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
NOAA 27-Day Space Weather Forecasts
  fun to read, but should be taken with a grain of salt! Forecasts looking ahead more than a few days are often wrong.
Aurora 30 min forecast
  from the NOAA Space Environment Center
Live Aurora Webcam
  from Lights over Lapland
Heliophysics
  the underlying science of space weather

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T CrB NOVA WATCH
today: m=10.5 (July 15.5)
yesterday: m=10.2

more: AAVSO data | sky map

Explanation: When the nova explodes, the visual magnitude of the star (m) will jump from +10 (invisible to the naked eye) to +2 (about as bright as the North Star).



Moon Phases


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